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The self-contained and investor-friendly legal regime applicable to FIPs makes FIPs the preferred and most flexible private equity vehicle in Brazil.The adaptability of the FIP allows investors to contractually stipulate the most suitable set of governance and operational rules that will govern the FIP itself and their legal interaction as owners of the vehicle.Further, there are no restrictions on the number of FIPs that can invest in a single company. Investment Restrictions The FIP cannot invest in derivatives, except for hedging purposes.Furthermore, only the invested companies that make up the FIP’s portfolio may hold direct ownership in real estate assets, not the FIP itself.There are no mandatory concentration or diversification requirements that apply to the allocation of the FIP’s portfolio in equity investments, except if otherwise defined in the FIP’s charter.The FIP can concentrate its entire net equity in a single target or distribute its investments in as many targets as decided on by the FIP’s quotaholders or investment committee.The data also suggests that private equity investments exert a high degree of influence in the transformation of several sectors in the Brazilian economy, primarily by fostering the reallocation of assets and capital among entities and the reorganization of domestic businesses in pursuit of efficiency and profitability.From a legal standpoint, the intensification of private equity activity has prompted investors and governmental authorities to come up with creative transactional structures and regulatory approaches to facilitate private equity ventures, while coping with the demands and challenges of an increasingly competitive market.

The FIP form can be especially attractive to private equity investors seeking lower individual exposure to risks through the gathering of funds by an investor pool and asset diversification.

The most popular private equity vehicle in the Brazilian M&A practice is by far the FIP, whose structure bears some similarity to the partnership fund model generally adopted in the U. More importantly, investments and exit strategies successfully implemented by FIPs since 2004 created an encouraging track record that helped Brazilian private equity-backed M&A transactions achieve high priority on the agendas of institutional investors.

The regulatory flexibility and generally favorable tax regime accorded to FIPs make FIPs a unique and powerful tool for structuring M&A transactions involving targets in Brazil.

Nonetheless, holding companies or SPCs that the FIP invests in can be used as vehicles in leveraged acquisitions of, or investments in, target companies. Special Purpose Companies (SPCs) While companies in which the FIP invests must be publicly or closely held corporations, prevailing regulations impose no restrictions as to the type of business organization of the SPCs that can be held by target companies (S. As Figure 1 depicts, the FIP can use these SPCs—through target companies—to channel private equity investments in equity participations and assets that would otherwise not be permitted at the FIP level, Peculiarities pertaining to target or asset acquisitions, costs, time, tax efficiencies, and regulatory implications may be some of the motivations that lead corporate planners to adopt multiple corporate layers under an FIP, like the ones exemplified in Figure 1. Eligible Investors The risks associated with private equity investments generally make such investments unsuitable for the general public.

As for FIPs specifically, typical risks involve: (a) illiquidity of the securities and assets making up the FIP’s portfolio (as opposed to other investments in more liquid asset classes); (b) concentration in securities issued by only a few target companies or by target companies pertaining to given industries or sectors; (c) failure to comply with the investment policy due to the lack of eligible targets; (d) other risks particularly related to the target companies, including a spectrum of business, financial, and legal risks and contingencies; (e) risks related to the management and operation of the FIP; and (f) market and credit risks.

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